乔方利等人造假的重要铁证――伪造前期研究成果

  作者:李科声

  这些天新语丝上有关国家海洋局第一研究所乔方利学术不端的事说得沸沸扬扬,大体背景是2006年乔方利等宣称经过五年攻关,终于破解了“世界难题”,在国际上率先建立了“海浪―环流耦合理论”模型,该模型对预测全球未来气候意义非常重大,震动了国内外物理海洋学界!乔方利的这一成果不仅获国家973课题和国家自然科学基金支持,并且其本人还荣获了科技部973计划先进个人奖(见附录0)。

  辛海子、张一网等人认为乔方利的这一所谓“海浪―环流耦合理论”模型从专业的角度看,问题重重,有非常多的缺陷,其赖以支撑的论文Qiao_GRL2004最多算是一篇有问题的科研习作,因审稿人审稿不慎而“不小心”被发表,根本谈不上是震惊世界的成果,乔方利等因此夸大业绩,有骗取国家资金支持和荣誉之嫌。其中,辛海子发表在新语丝上的对乔方利“海浪―环流耦合理论”的专业点评(XYS20140923)说的深入浅出,对其本质剖析得淋漓尽致,我等尽管不是做海洋数值模拟的,也读得畅快淋漓,以至于也产生了去研究下乔方利的“成果”的冲动,于是乎立马下载了乔方利的雄文:

  Fangli Qiao, Yeli Yuan, Yongzeng Yang, Quanan Zheng, Changshui Xiaand Jian Ma, 2004. Wave-induced mixing in the upper ocean:Distribution and application in a global ocean circulation model,Geophysical Research Letter, 31: L11303, doi: 10.1029/2004GL019824。

  本人读专业论文有一个习惯,那就是,如果有不好理解的地方,就把论文中引用的文献也一并下载下来研读,以加深理解,结果有了意想不到的发现!在这篇论文中,有一篇代表他们前期工作基础的重要文献居然找不到!他们给出的引文线索如下:

  Yuan, Y., F. Qiao, F. Hua, and Z. Wan (1999), The development of acoastal circulation numerical model: 1. Wave-induced mixing andwave-current interaction, J. Hydrodyn., Ser. A, 14, 1 C 8.

  进一步搜索,更诡异的事情出现了,这篇神秘的文献居然共被物理海洋界的同行的16篇论文所引用(见附录1-16)。这16篇论文有14篇的合作者中出现了乔方利或乔方利的导师袁业立的名字。这篇神秘的文献被乔方利和袁业立2010年的另一篇论文引用时,添加了括符 (in Chinese),表明这是一篇中文期刊发表的论文。J. Hydrodyn., Ser. A对应的中文期刊叫《水动力学研究与进展》。在乔方利的百科人物介绍的网页http://baike.baidu.com/view/8213511.htm上,这篇论文是以如下面目出现:

  袁业立,乔方利,华锋,万振文,1999:近海环流数值模式的建立,部分1:海波的搅拌和波-流相互作用,水动力学研究与进展,A辑,14(4B):1-8。

  于是乎我又分别到《中国知网》和《水动力学研究与进展》杂志官网上找这篇论文,但也找不到这篇神秘文献的踪影。无论中文英文,不限刊物,无论通过作者或论文标题都反复试过,就是找不到。

  最后我只能下结论:乔方利2004年在投稿GRL那篇文章时,为了增加说服力,伪造了所谓的“前期工作”,后面则索性一不做二不休,在其他文章中连续引用,以增加“引用率”。至于其他人(非乔方利自己)对该论文的引用,比如附录3,则可能是论文作者阅读过Qiao_GRL2004,看到了这篇文献,于是乎在自己写论文介绍背景工作时跟着“引用”了,根本就没想到这个文献是个假的。

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  附录:

  0。http://www.qingdaonews.com/content/2006-06/11/content_7038302.htm
  1。Wave\induced mixing in the upper ocean: Distribution andapplication to a global ocean circulation model
  F Qiao, Y Yuan, Y Yang, Q Zheng… – Geophysical Research …, 2004

  2。A three-dimensional surface waveCocean circulation coupledmodel and its initial testing
  F Qiao, Y Yuan, T Ezer, C Xia, Y Yang, X Lü, Z Song – OceanDynamics, 2010

  3。Modeling effects of tidal and wave mixing on circulation andthermohaline structures in the Bering Sea
  H Hu, J Wang – … of Geophysical Research: Oceans

  4。Influences of the surface wave-induced mixing and tidal mixingon the vertical temperature structure of the Yellow and East ChinaSeas in summer
  F Qiao, J Ma, C Xia, Y Yang, Y Yuan – Progress in Natural Science,2006

  5。Effects of the Yellow Sea Warm Current on the wintertemperature distribution in a numerical model
  J Ma, F Qiao, C Xia, CS Kim – Journal of Geophysical Research: …,2006

  6。Simulation of double cold cores of the 35 N section in theYellow Sea with a wave-tide-circulation coupled model
  X Changshui, Q Fangli, Z Mengning… – Chinese Journal of …, 2004

  7。Tidally induced upwelling off Yangtze River estuary and inZhejiang coastal waters in summer
  XG Lü, FL Qiao, CS Xia, YL Yuan – Science in China Series D:Earth …, 2007

  8。Improved simulation of the South Asian summer monsoon in acoupled GCM with a more realistic ocean mixed layer
  Y Song, F Qiao, Z Song – Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 2012

  9。Modeling 1993C2008 climatology of seasonal general circulationand thermal structure in the Great Lakes using FVCOM
  X Bai, J Wang, DJ Schwab, Y Yang, L Luo… – Ocean Modelling, 2013

  10。Simulation and analysis on seasonal variability of averagesalinity in the Yellow Sea
  M Jian, Q Fangli – Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology,2004

  11。Wave-induced mixing in the Yellow Sea
  Y Yongzeng, Q Fangli, X Changshui, M Jian… – Chinese Journal of …,2004

  12。Seasonal variability of thermocline in the Yellow Sea
  Q Fangli, X Changshui, S Jianwei, M Jian… – Chinese Journal of …,2004

  13。A reappraisal of ocean wave studies
  Y Yuan, NE Huang – Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans …,2012

  14。Influences of the surface wave-induced mixing and tidal mixingon the vertical temperature structure of the Yellow and East ChinaSeas in summer
  Q Fangli, M Jian, X Changshui… – Progress in Natural …, 2006

  15。Analytical estimation of mixing coefficient induced by surfacewave-generated turbulence based on the equilibrium solution of thesecond-order turbulence closure
  YL Yuan, FL Qiao, XQ Yin, L Han – Science China Earth Sciences,2013

  16。Sensitive study of the long and short surface wave-inducedvertical mixing in a wave-circulation coupled model
  C Zhao, F Qiao, C Xia, G Wang – Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2012

(XYS20141005)

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